The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Digital pathology is technical -based information which is enabled by the technology that is generated from a digital slide. Digital pathology is enabled by a part called virtual microscopy, which is the practice of converting glass slides into digital slides that can be viewed, managed, shared and analyzed on the technical screen.
Digital pathology is also termed as Whole slide imaging (WSI) or virtual pathology which includes high-speed resolution accession of images which represents the stained tissue sections into a format that is allowed to be viewed by a pathologist.
Telepathology is defined as the electronic transmission of image accessed from a microscope for interpretation and diagnosis. It utilizes state-of-art Telecommunications technology to transfer pathology images around the world for diagnosis, education, and research.
- Track 1-1Digital Radiology
- Track 1-2Whole-Slide Imaging
- Track 1-3Virtual Microscopy
- Track 1-4Digital Images
- Track 1-5Image analysis
- Track 1-6Image Segmentation
- Track 1-7Gynecologic Cytopathology
Surgical pathology comprises two types of following analysis: biopsies and surgical resections. The biopsy is a piece of tissue dissected for the analysis of surgical pathology.
- Track 2-1Immunohistochemistry
- Track 2-2Adjuvant Chemotherapy
- Track 2-3Muscle Biopsies
- Track 2-4Fixation and Embedding
- Track 2-5Lymph Node Biopsies
- Track 2-6DNA Studies
Veterinary science mostly helps human health by controlling infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans, as well as control of food safety, and indirect human applications from medical research.
Most significant pathological research conducted on animals for two primary reasons:
1)Nature and origin of the disease are zoonotic along with animal vectors and their mechanisms of action of disease pathogens on non-human hosts are essential.
2) The animals sharing physiological & genetic traits with humans can be used for the study of their potential treatments.
- Track 3-1Molecular examination of organs & tissues
- Track 3-2Urine or Cavitary Effusions
- Track 3-3Molecular Pathology
- Track 3-4Laboratory analysis of bodily fluids
- Track 3-5Gross Pathology
Histopathology is the study which deals with the examination of tissues under a microscope to spot the abnormal changes of the characteristic disease which cannot be seen by naked eye. The examination of tissues is held by surgery, Autopsy or also called as a biopsy.
The main aim was to reveal the cellular components like counterstains to provide the contrast method by using free cells and Cellular fragments.
Cytopathology is the study of pathology which deals with the diagnosis of a diseased cell. It is used to investigate a wide range of diseases in body sites and also to aid the diagnosis of some infectious diseases like Cancer and inflammatory conditions.
Cytopathology is generally used on free cells or tissue fragments along with cytopathology tests and microscopic examination. The samples may be either created by another process called Cytocentrifugation.
- Track 4-1Aspiration Cytology
- Track 4-2Exfoliative Cytology
- Track 4-3Cytocentrifugation
- Track 4-4Cancer Diagnosis
- Track 4-5Exfoliative Cytopathology
Experimental Pathology is the study of examination of disease cells, tissues, organs, & body fluids from diseased organisms.
This is also a program of scientific expression and progressive way of tissue injury and also further includes Pathogenesis of fundamental cellular and Molecular Mechanisms. It also includes the artificially induced pathological programs.
Many of the pathological processes come under experimental pathology such as histopathology, cytopathology, Dermatopathology, forensic pathology, pulmonary pathology, renal pathology, immune pathology, radio pathology, oral & maxillofacial pathology, psychopathology & molecular pathology, etc.
- Track 5-1Cancer Research
- Track 5-2Emerging Pathogens
- Track 5-3Autoimmunity
- Track 5-4Nephrolithiasis
- Track 5-5Stem Cell Research
- Track 5-6Coagulative Necrosis
- Track 5-7Hemodynamics
- Track 5-8Hemorheology
- Track 5-9Lipofuscin
- Track 5-10Pyknosis
- Track 5-11Caseous necrosis
- Track 5-12Atrophy
Autopsy pathology is the study of specialized surgical procedures that consists of the examination of a cadaver by determining the cause of death or to assess any disease.
An autopsy is also known for post-mortem examination which is a surgical procedure for evaluating the manner of death.
The main motto of an autopsy is to determine the cause of injury or Death, the status of the health condition of a person whether any appropriate treatment was diagnosed before.
- Track 6-1Lupus Erythematosus
- Track 6-2Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis
- Track 6-3cause of death
- Track 6-4Lou Gehrigs disease
Most of the genetic disease processes give the result of mutation from a single gene or with Chromosomal rearrangement. Some of the genetic diseases include Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, Wilms tumor, Hemophilia, Sickle-cell anemia & Angelman syndrome, etc.
Various techniques such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), , in situ hybridization, DNA microarray, multiplex PCR, , in situ RNA sequencing, antibody immunofluorescence assays, for antimicrobial resistance for bacterial genes.
- Track 7-1Cystic Fibrosis
- Track 7-2Hemochromatosis
- Track 7-3Prognosis
- Track 7-4Hematolymphoid Malignancies
- Track 7-5Inherited Genetic Disorders
- Track 8-1Sclerosing Adenosis
- Track 8-2Molecular Biomarkers
- Track 8-3Neoplastic Diseases
- Track 8-4Benign Diseases
- Track 8-5Metaplastic Carcinoma
- Track 8-6Breast Cancer
- Track 8-7Lymph node metastasis
Clinical pathology is a specialized condition where the disease is diagnosed on the basis of laboratory analysis of Blood, urine & tissue extracts with the use of tools such as microbiology, molecular pathology, chemistry & hematology.
Clinical pathologists are provided with healthcare training who handles the divisions of the laboratory which includes the sessions like Serology, hematology, immunology, toxicology. It also controls the maintenance of research & quality control of information systems.
Chemical pathology is the study of pathology which diagnoses body fluids like blood, screening of urine, prognosis & management.
Chemical pathologists are those who combine practical knowledge and clinical skills. They have a detailed understanding of Biochemical processes and abnormal changes that occur in disease. They are provided with a specialized area where the tests are performed to diagnose and manage patients. It also includes the detection and measurement of tumors, poisons, hormones and also with illicit drugs and therapeutic drugs.
- Track 9-1Clincal Immunology
- Track 9-2Cytometry
- Track 9-3Serology
- Track 9-4Cytogenetics
- Track 9-5Cytochemical stains
- Track 9-6Immunoassay
- Track 10-1Neuro-muscular pathology
- Track 10-2Gastrointestinal Pathology
- Track 10-3Comparative Placentation
- Track 10-4Phenotyping Core
- Track 10-5Histology
- Track 10-6Translational Potential
- Track 10-7Biomedical Research
- Unusual presentations of a disease
- New variations in disease processes
- Presentations, diagnoses of new emerging diseases
- unexpected interaction between diseases and symptoms
- the course of observing or in case of treating a patient
- Findings of new light on Pathogenesis process of a disease or adverse effects
- Adverse or side effects which involve medications.
- Track 11-1Diagnostic Pathology
- Track 11-2Unexpected association between diseases or symptoms
- Track 11-3Pathogenesis of a disease
- Track 11-4Variations in disease processes
- Track 11-5Unusual presentations of a disease
Cancer cytopathology is a branch of pathology which is related to the oncology department. The main aim is to provide information about the Cytopathologists. Basically, oncology is the branch of study which deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The tests performed are also known as smear tests which may be used to detect the information about the tumor. Hence it is also termed as a Cytological smear.
Cytopathology is the anatomical division where the morphological & abnormal changes of the cells occur from lesions to malignancy. In cytopathology, the malignant cells and pre-malignant cells are detected by the Cytological evaluation of samples or specimens obtained by techniques such as Fine needle aspirations (FNAs), cerebrospinal fluids, gastric and bile duct washings, pleural and peritoneal effusions.
- Track 12-1Molecular Diagnostics
- Track 12-2Immunocytochemistry
- Track 12-3fine-needle aspiration
- Track 12-4Analytic Cytopathology
Liver pathology deals with the study of hepatic diseases which includes hepatitis virus, cirrhosis, etc. Hepatic pathologists, radiologists are quite good and sort out many types of Hepatic Lesions. Liver occupies the main functioning in filtering the blood from the digestive system passing throughout the body parts. Some of the viruses can be transmitted during birth and also through contact with infected blood such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.
Liver cirrhosis is one of the pathological results of chronic diseases whereas fibrosis is the main precursor of cirrhosis. Some types of cells like Cytokines and mRNAs are also mainly involved in initiation and progression of diseases like liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. In fibrosis, the activation of cells takes place such as Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The major factors of hepatic dysfunction are Defenestration and Capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver cirrhosis.
Gastrointestinal pathology deals with the diagnosis of Digestive tract and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases and treatment of some Accessory organs such as pancreas and liver.
Gastrointestinal pathology involves:
- The evaluation of biopsy and diagnosis of gastrointestinal tissue.
- The interaction with surgeons to ensure the clinical aspects of treatment and other diagnostic modalities.
- Performing research in Gastrointestinal physiology, mechanisms of diseased state and Histomorphology
- Track 13-1Surgical Pathology
- Track 13-2Chronic Hepatitis
- Track 13-3Centrilobular Necrosis
- Track 13-4Hematemesis
- Track 13-5Melena
- Track 13-6Neoplasms and Non- Neoplasms
Gynecologic pathology is the branch of pathology which deals with the study and diagnosis involving female genital tract and the Placenta. A gynecologic pathologist is a person or a physician who practices gynecology.
Gynecological pathology is also termed as the study of women. It includes various diseases of the placenta.
Reproductive Pathology is the study of the pathology of sex organs within an organism which is involved in the process of Sexual reproduction. Reproductive pathology deals with the Reproductive organs of the body. Some of the major organs like Testicular and Ovarian pathology are absolutely focused on neoplasm.
Some of the testicular tumors are derived from germ cells and ovarian tumors are further derived from the epithelial cells. The squamous carcinoma is caused by HPV mostly in the penis and the cervix. The three pathologic process of Reproductive pathology is acute prostatitis, prostatic adenocarcinoma & benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Uropathology is the study of pathology which deals with the Urinary tract or urinary system. It is also termed as Urology. Various organs like Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra are involved in the production and excretion of urine. The kidneys function by producing urine to eliminate the liquid waste from the body. Kidney stones can be formed due to the imbalance elimination of minerals and acid salts in the urine.
- Track 14-1Placenta
- Track 14-2Female Genital Tract
- Track 14-3Sexual Reproduction
- Track 14-4Testicular Tumors
- Track 14-5Squamous Carcinoma
- Track 14-6Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
- Track 14-7Prostatic Adenocarcinoma
- Track 14-8Prostatitis
- Track 14-9Ovarian Pathology
- Track 14-10Testicular Pathology
Hematopathology is also termed as ‘Hemopathology’. Hematopathology is the study of pathology which deals with the disorders affecting the blood cells, organs, tissues which are involved in various processes such as hematopoiesis, bone marrow, spleen, and thymus.
The Diagnoses and treatment of such diseases like Leukemia & Lymphoma frequently deal with hematopathology & also includes techniques and technologies like flow cytometry & immunohistochemistry studies. A person who practices hematopathology is referred to as Hematopathologist.
The Hematopathologist works on the biopsies of lymph nodes, bone marrows, tissues which are involved by the infiltration of cells in the hematopoietic system.
- Track 15-1Leukemia
- Track 15-2Lymphoma
- Track 15-3Flow Cytometry
- Track 15-4Hematopoiesis
- Track 15-5Infilteration of cells
It is a subspecialty in joint of dermatology and pathology and a lesser scale of surgical pathology where the study of Cutaneous diseases are observed in both microscopic and molecular level. It also encircles the analysis of the potential cause of skin disease which is at a basic level.
Some of the Dermatologists recognize most of the skin diseases based on appearances & anatomic distributions. However, such criteria do not render a conclusion and a Skin biopsy is usually examined under the microscope or by molecular tests.
Through this process, it reveals the histology of the affected skin and gives an outcome of specific diagnostic interpretation. Additionally, specialized tests are performed on basis of biopsies, it also includes techniques like immunofluorescence, histochemistry, electron microscopy, cytometry & Molecular-pathologic analysis.
Many of the skin disorders exist about 1500 different disorders including pre-cancers such as an actinic keratosis & cancers along with both benign masses & malignant cancers
Some of the Non-cancerous conditions include vitiligo, purpura, impetigo, spider veins, warts, moles, oral or such cases dealing with wrinkles, peeling off skin or with Autoimmune attacks on the skin.
- Track 16-1Molecular Pathologic Analysis
- Track 16-2Merkel Cell Carcinoma
- Track 16-3Skin Histopathology
- Track 16-4Molluscum Contagiosum
- Track 16-5Immunologic Diseases
Soft tissue pathology is the study of pathology which deals with the Tissue diagnosis as well as characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. This comprises of muscle, Adipose tissue, tendons, Fascia & connective tissues.
However, malignancies of the soft tissues are difficult for the pathologist to diagnose through examination and microscopy and also by some additional tools such as immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy & molecular pathology techniques employed to obtain a definitive diagnosis.
Bone pathology is also known as orthopedic pathology. Bone pathology is a subcategory of surgical pathology. It mainly deals with the treatment and features many of the Bone diseases. In in vivo radiological studies, it takes an advantage with the use of gross examination and microscopic results. Occasionally, the pathologists use the Specimen radiographs to diagnose affected bones.
The Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology Department deals with neoplasms and pathological conditions that affect the Bone skeletal system and extraskeletal tissues consisting of fibrous tissue, adipose tissue, blood vessels & peripheral nerves.
The process which includes in diagnosis is not a limited study of macroscopic and microscopic features of Bone in selected cases. Such diagnosis is validated by the use of special techniques such as immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology, and cytogenetics.
- Track 17-1Immuno Histochemistry
- Track 17-2Neoplastic & Non-neoplastic Diseases
- Track 17-3Cytogenetics
- Track 17-4Molecular Pathology
Oral & Maxillofacial pathology is further termed as Oral pathology. This type of pathology refers to the oral cavity diseases, maxillae and also related to salivary glands, Facial muscles, and perioral skin & Temporomandibular joints. It is a prone area for a variety of disorders. It is related along with diagnosis and study about the diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region.
The American Dental Association mostly uses the term oral and maxillofacial pathology for describing it as “the specialty of Dentistry and Pathology” which deals with the identification, and management of diseases.
- Track 18-1Temporomandibular Joints
- Track 18-2Oral Cavity Diseases
- Track 18-3Maxillae Diseases
Anatomic pathology relates to the examination, processing, and diagnosis of specimens obtained from the diagnosis.
Forensic pathology is a branch of pathology that determines the cause of death by examination of a corpse where a post-mortem is performed usually during the investigation of criminal cases and civil law cases. Similarly, Coroners and medical examiners are asked to confirm the identity of a corpse.
These pathologists collect data and examine tissue specimens under the microscope for the presence or absence of disease and other findings such as Asbestos bodies, gunpowder particles around a gunshot wound.
Sometimes Forensic physicians are referred to as "Forensic medical examiners" or "police surgeons" and are also medical doctors who got trained in the examination and provision of medical treatment for living victims including Sexual assault & individuals who are in police custody.
- Track 19-1Â MolecularÂ Examination ofÂ Organs
- Track 19-2Immunologic Examination
- Track 19-3Biochemical Examination
- Track 19-4Veterinary pathology
- Track 19-5Clinical pathology
- Track 19-6Macroscopic & Microscopic Examination
- Track 19-7Gross Examination
- Track 19-8In SituÂ HybridizationÂ
- Track 19-9Flow Immunophenotyping
- Track 19-10Surgical Pathology
Microbial pathology is the study of science which deals with molecular mechanisms of microbes in humans and animals. A wide variety of diseases like Bacteria, protozoa, fungi & virus have evolved by such tools where the host and also cause diseases. Similarly, other mechanisms like Pathogenesis include dost defense evasion mechanism.
In advanced research and education, Microbiology, Immunology & Infectious Diseases of Pathology points out on immunological disorders. In expansion to the investigation, it is effectively engaged in the disciplines of microbiology and immunology.
Infectious Disease is also one of the pathology studies which are responsible for conducting investigations and laboratory studies of infectious diseases. Continually growing, for diagnosis of immune comprised patients & re-emergence of known and Unknown diseases on further tropical and Identified infections.
It has a core function which provides an evaluation of Histopathology, immunohistochemical, molecular, microbiologic and electron microscopic tissues from patients with infectious diseases Epidemiologic support for investigations.
- Track 20-1Microbial Pathogenesis
- Track 20-2Applied Microbiology
- Track 20-3Microbial Physiology
- Track 20-4Mycology
- Track 20-5Virology
- Track 20-6Bacteriology
- Track 20-7Transmissible diseases
- Track 21-1Nasal cavity, Nasopharynx & Sinuses
- Track 21-2Oral cavity, Neck & Tonsils
- Track 21-3Larynx & Hypolarynx
- Track 21-4Major & Minor salivary glands
- Track 21-5Diseases of Ear
Usually, some of the developed tests like Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density Testing (ENFD) is a recently developed test in which skin biopsy is taken to identify small fiber Neuropathies by the analysis of nerve fibers of the skin.
- Track 22-1Neurosurgery
- Track 22-2Neuropathy
- Track 22-3Epidermal Nerve Fibre Density
- Track 22-4Nervous Tissue Biopsy
- Track 22-5Polymyositis
- Track 22-6Mitochondrial Myopathy
- Track 22-7Peripheral Neuropathies
- Track 22-8Vasculitis
- Track 22-9Amyloidosis
The branch of Pathology is a specialized field of Surgical Pathology that deals with the diagnosis. The diagnosis and interpretation of kidney biopsies are referred to as Nephropathology. Disease processes can be seen in the patient’s kidney as well as in those patients who have received Transplanted kidneys. A physician recommends a biopsy when an initial result of tissue in the body isn't normal. The abnormal tissue is called as Lesion or Tumor or a mass. Further examination of tissue removed from a living body to examine the presence & cause of biopsy. The Nephropathology is also a collaboration with nephrology.
- Track 23-1Renal Pathology
- Track 23-2Globular Diseases
- Track 23-3Infectious Diseases
- Track 23-4Neoplasia
- Track 23-5Tubular Diseases
- Track 23-6Vascular Diseases
- Track 23-7Fetal & Congenital Anomalies
- Track 23-8Urinary Bladder
- Track 23-9Cystic Diseases
Immunopathology is a study of clinical pathology that deals with Immune response to a certain disease of an organism. These diseases can come from some of the reasons like the first would be Hypersensitivity whereas, the second kind includes the complication of the immune system which is termed as Autoimmunity. The immune system attacks itself than the antigen as the immune cells are Self-reactive. The third type of complication would be Immunodeficiency, where it lacks the ability to fight with a certain disease.
- Track 24-1Hypersensitivity
- Track 24-2Inflammation
- Track 24-3 Addisons disease
- Track 24-4Celiac Disease
- Track 24-5Immunodeficiency
- Track 24-6Type 1 Diabetes
Diagnostic pathology is the study of the Pathology that includes research in surgical, Clinical Pathology, Immunology, & biology.
This Pathology also provides an informative journal for Molecular Pathology, virtual & Digital Pathology.
It represents a huge number of tests along with the study of collected data from the body or analysis. Cells of the Cervix smears to check out for confirmation of growth or infection of the disease. Skin Tissues are collected for the analysis of diseases affected to the organism.
diagnostic pathology is also termed as "Experimental" or "Investigative" pathology.
The Microscopical study of abnormal tissue, disease state & determination of histopathology of lesions and post-mortem.
- Track 25-1Hodgkin lymphoma
- Track 25-2Diagnostic Cytopathology
- Track 25-3Diagnostic Histopathology
- Track 25-4Diagnostic Pathology of infectious Diseases
- Track 25-5Genitourinary & Diagnostic Pathology
- Track 25-6Immunohistology & Diagnostic Pathology
- Track 25-7Evaluation of Histiocytic cells
Pediatric pathology is based on children’s healthcare where the scope of disease is high and cases can be challenging. Various Techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescence, in-situ hybridization (FISH) is used for Paediatric surgeries which deal with childhood cancer.
The most accurate information of placental pathology obtained about Fetus is provided by the specialists regarding the causes like poor pregnancy outcomes, recurrence risk, potential treatment options, causes of fetal death.
In short, Paediatric & Perinatal pathology deals with the pathology of the fetus, neonate or child. Mostly it undergoes with the diagnosis & characterization of neoplastic diseases and non-neoplastic diseases of Children.
- Track 26-1Congenital Anomalies
- Track 26-2Infections, maternal/fetal conditionsÂ
- Track 26-3Intrauterine growth restriction
- Track 26-4Pregnancy loss
- Track 26-5Pediatric tumors
Other techniques including such as immunohistochemistry, Molecular testing, & electron microscopy are also employed. The diagnosis collects the data about the cause, pathogenesis & Prognosis of Ocular Diseases.
- Biopsies from the eye and Eyelids
- Cytologic specimens are obtained from the eye and orbit by an experimental method called fine needle aspiration
- Examination of enucleation and exenteration specimens
- Resection and biopsy reviews.
- Track 27-1Resection and Biopsy reviews
- Track 27-2Biopsies from the eye and eyelids
- Track 27-3Cytologic specimens from the eye and orbit, including fine needle aspiration
- Track 27-4Consultation servicesÂ for examination of enucleation and exenteration specimens
Psychopathology is the pathologic scientific study of mental disorders which includes the efforts taken to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes and to develop the classification schemes which improves the treatment plans and outcomes. Further understanding the course of Psychiatric illnesses across which all stages of development &more manifestations of Mental disorders and investigates the potentially.
Psychopathology is one of the scientific study based on the disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences.
Similarly, there are four dimensions such as deviance, distress, dysfunction & danger collectively known as the Four D's
The term Psychopathology may also be denoted experiences and behaviors or indicative of mental illness.
- Track 28-1Tissue Culture
- Track 28-2Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
- Track 28-3Mental illness
- Track 28-4Neuroscience
- Track 28-5Criminology
- Track 28-6Epidemiology
- Track 28-7Epidemiology
- Track 28-8Deviance
- Track 28-9Distress
- Track 28-10Dysfunction
- Track 28-11Danger
Renal Pathology is a subcategory of anatomic pathology which deals with the study of diagnosis and characterization of medical diseases such as Non-tumors of the kidneys. A physician who works on the diagnosis of Renal pathology is termed as the Renal pathologist.
They use techniques like light microscopy, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy to provide a diagnosis of the disease.
Medical Renal Diseases may affect the glomerulus, the tubules, and interstitium, the vessels or with the combination of these compartments.
Renal development is further characterized by some of the results like Proliferation, migration, cell differentiation and also induction.
This analysis explains the high abnormalities of kidneys or Urinary Tract Pathology.
A certain number of urinary tract disorders can already get diagnosed in the Uterus by the use of Ultrasound technique.
Similarly, a disorder related to the formation or excretion of urine leads to Oligohydramnios.
- Track 29-1Plant Physiology
- Track 29-2Cystic Diseases
- Track 29-3Glomerular Diseases
- Track 29-4Infectious Diseases
- Track 29-5Neoplasia
- Track 29-6Tubular Diseases
- Track 29-7Vascular Diseases
- Track 29-8Foetal & Congenital anomalies
- Track 29-9Condyloma Acuminatum
Plant Pathology/ Phytopathology is the study of plant diseases caused by pathogens i.e., infectious organisms. Plant Pathologists ensures the health of Plant. Plant Pathology is the study of identification of different pathogens, resistance of plant pathology, plant diseases infect humans & animals, pathosystem genetics etc. Plant health affected by microorganism, nutrition in plants and weather conditions. Infectious diseases can be caused by different organisms are nematodes, viroid’s, fungi, bacteria etc. Plant Pathology is the scientific study of pathogens & plant at the community levels with genetic, physiological, biochemical and cellular populations. The interrelationship between the plant and causal agents cause plant diseases which affects growth of plant, quality, methods to control plant diseases and yield. Diseases in plant varies from different season to different depending on several factors like environmental conditions, crops & varieties plantation and pathogens.
- Track 30-1Genetic Engineering
- Track 30-2Horticulture
- Track 30-3Soil Science
- Track 30-4Forestry
- Track 30-5Meteorology
- Track 30-6Applied Science
- Track 30-7Transmission of fungi
- Track 30-8Transmission of Oomycetes
- Track 30-9Transmisssion of bacteria
- Track 30-10Plant Anatomy